European Connections

The battles of the Wars of the Roses all happened in England. But the wars were shaped by European politics, economics and culture. Some of our most useful sources also come from outside England and Wales.

The map below gives just a small number of examples of the connections.



And this video shows how the balance of power in Europe changed over time with different rulers. Start at 11:40 if you want to begin at 1066; or 12:21 to watch the expansions and contractions of English power in France from 1150. 1415 (the year of Agincourt) is at 14:28.

You can find out more about the connections with Europe and beyond at the England’s Immigrants 1330 -1550 database website created by the University of York and The National Archives.